The small-store owner is too important, nimble and innovative to be bumped off by big-box retailers in India.

Kirana RIP? Not Yet.

The arguments for and against FDI in retail are, at a generic level, valid on both sides. However, since the devil is usually in the detail, the facts about India’s small retailers and suppliers, the conditions stipulated for FDI, and recent experience with the effects of domestic modern retail need to be viewed together before the likely outcome pronounced. The big fight is about whether this new policy will kill small shops, massively destroy livelihoods and take away GenNext’s opportunities. Facts suggest otherwise. Consider the kirana, the one most feared to be at risk. About 5-6 million of the 8 million FMCG-stocking kiranas are in rural India, and are totally safe, as the new ones can only come into the top 53 cities.

R Sriram, founder of Crossword and retail expert, tables two insights. One, in many big cities, kiranas are already not participating in the growth offered by the newer settlements like Gurgaon or Powai, because without their advantage of historically-priced real estate, they are not viable. Two, increasingly, small shopkeepers’ children are getting better educated and want to exit ‘sitting in the shop’ as soon as possible, just as small farmers’ children are exiting farming. Sadly, the country’s retail density has been increasing in recent years, not driven by passion or profit, but because of lack of options — hopefully that will change. It is true that traditional income streams of small shops in the vicinity of a large supermarket plummet; but we have seen that they soon recast their business model, exploiting the inherent advantages they have that the supermarket cannot emulate: free, prompt and no-conditions home delivery, superior and customised customer relationship management, khaata- credit and willingness to stock small quantities of something used by only a few people in their catchment — a classic ‘long-tail’ strategy. Notice two more things: even in upper-class areas in large cities, despite large retail chains in the vicinity, the small vegetable vendor and kirana continue to find a place in the household’s shopping basket. The kirana also continuously morphs, and is already moving to a more specialised and selective portfolio. We will find them variously choosing to become more of a convenience store (7-Eleven-type), or fresh-food store, a home-delivery store, maybe even express-format franchisees of large retail, and so on.

Another reality check: how much consumption capacity do even the top 50 cities have? Seriously, how many more Ikea, Zara, Walmart, Tesco and Best Buy can a Surat, Kanpur or Indore absorb, in addition to more Big Bazaar, Megamart and Croma? Further, foreign specialty retailers targeting the rich consumer will create never-before custom, and not at the expense of existing shops. Two decades ago, we had the same hue and cry that Indian brands would be wiped out; but they got better and bigger than they would have had they been left unchallenged. Now for the suppliers. Large suppliers will lose the pricing power they had with small retailers and nobody on any side of the FDI debate is grieving for them. Small suppliers, even without FDI, are being mercilessly squeezed by middlemen. The hope is that large retail chains, unlike the broker middleman, have more incentive to pay more because they have customer loyalty and a brand to build; in exchange for steady, loyal, consistent quality supply, they will pay more, guarantee offtake, improve product and production efficiency. The FDI norm of at least 30% sourcing from small scale pushes this further. Walmart potentially could kill the small suppliers of anything by importing 70% from China cheaper; but loads of small traders are already doing the same, flooding our markets with Ganesh murtis, chappals, clothes, watches, etc.

The Achilles’ heel for a lot of skilled artisans, specialised producers, grass roots innovators, etc, is market orientation and marketing. Producer collectives have managed to organise themselves on the supply side using government assistance schemes, but they struggle to manage the demand side. That is the missing link that large retailers in vendor development mode can provide, just as the auto industry has done to ancillary suppliers. Both sides agree that customers will gain because large chain retailers can provide better for cheaper, given the discounts they get through buying large quantities and sourcing smartly. Customers will also get a wider range, more innovative products and more comfortable, truthful and informed shopping environment. Poor customers won’t get discriminated against, because the hypermarket is anonymous, transactional, classless and nonjudgemental. They may not get better service because the small Indian retailer is the champion of good service, from atta to electrical, the likes of which we haven’t yet seen any big retailer match, anywhere in the world. That’s another reason why he will always survive.

Before we fight further, consider this. This network of commercially-savvy supplychain linked small retailers is an invaluable asset: as one report said, they are not ‘unorganised’ by any stretch of imagination; we agree and have refrained from using this phrase in this article! It is unlikely that Indian jugaad will let this network disintegrate. Perhaps in rural India, where they would have been more hard hit had the big-box retailers been allowed, they would have been garnered by banks as new extension counters for financial inclusion.

economictimes.com: RAMA BIJAPURKAR INDEPENDENT MARKET STRATEGY CONSULTANT

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India Paves Way for Wal-Mart, Tesco to Enter Market

India approved allowing overseas companies to own as much as 51 percent of retailers selling more than one brand, paving the way for global companies such as Wal- Mart Stores Inc. (WMT) and Tesco Plc to own stores.

Overseas companies must invest at least $100 million, half of which has to be spent on developing back-end infrastructure, Commerce Minister Anand Sharma said in a statement presented to parliament today. India’s cabinet yesterday eased retail ownership rules, including permitting 100 percent foreign holding in single brand stores.

India’s decision to allow overseas ownership in retail will create up to 10 million jobs and give farmers better prices, Sharma said. Wal-Mart,Carrefour SA (CA) and Tesco (TSCO) seek to step up their presence in the world’s second-most populous nation to tap a market estimated by Business Monitor International to double to $785 billion by 2015 from $396 billion this year.

“This is possibly the most exciting thing that has happened in retail in India,” said Hemant Kalbag, who heads the consumer and retail practice for Asia at A.T. Kearney in Mumbai. “This is probably the next big wave of change in organized retail in India.”

Overseas retailers will be required to purchase at least 30 percent of goods sold in the ventures from small industries, Sharma said. Stores will be permitted only in 53 cities with a population of 1 million or more, and the government will retain the first right to buy farm products, he said.

‘Important First Step’

The government’s move is “an important first step,” Wal- Mart Asia President Scott Price said in a statement. The retailer looks forward to “playing a key role” in India.

Asia’s third-biggest economy permitted foreign retailers to own wholesale stores in 1997. Policy makers have been debating ownership rules in retail for at least seven years.

Wal-Mart has set up 14 such stores through a joint venture with billionaire Sunil Bharti Mittal’s Bharti Enterprises to gain a foothold in India, while Metro AG operates six wholesale stores. Carrefour opened its first outlet in December.

“This legal evolution should contribute to modernize Indian food supply chain and to fight against food inflation for the benefit of Indian customers,” Carrefour said in an e-mailed statement. The Boulogne-Billancourt, France-based retailer will wait for final regulations, it said.

India’s decision may prompt expansion of existing joint ventures and trigger acquisitions, said Bryan Roberts, director of retail research at Kantar Retail in London. Still, the size of the opportunity may be “overstated,” he said.

“A lot of retailers have already expanded and found that there’s not enough middle-class shoppers around at the moment,” said Roberts.

‘Win for Consumers’

India’s retail industry will get $8 billion to $10 billion in fresh investments over the next five to 10 years, Kishore Biyani, managing director ofPantaloon Retail India Ltd. (PF), said in an e-mailed statement yesterday. Pantaloon, which operates more than 150 Big Bazaar supermarketsacross 90 cities and towns, also has apparel and consumer-electronics outlets.

“It is a big win for consumers as they will have more choices,” said Biyani. “It’s a win for small industries as they will have more retailers creating markets for their products” and farmers will benefit from better prices, he said.

Pantaloon climbed 16 percent, the biggest gain since May 2009, to 233.95 rupees at the close in Mumbai trading. Shoppers Stop Ltd. (SHOP)rose 6.2 percent, and Trent Ltd. (TRENT), Tesco’s India partner, advanced 8.6 percent, the most since August 2010.

The decision to permit foreign retailers came as Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s parliamentary ally the Trinamool Congress opposed the proposal. The main federal opposition Bharatiya Janata Party was also against the move.

Political Opposition

“Small and medium retailers, which employ a large number of people, will be affected,” Arun Jaitley, a BJP leader, said in New Delhi yesterday. “We oppose it completely.”

Overseas investment in the retail industry may help slow the pace of price gains, Reserve Bank of India Governor Duvvuri Subbarao said in the northern city of Chandigarh today. “Its important not only for raising overall growth but also important for containing inflation,” said Subbarao.

India’s food inflation accelerated 9.01 percent in the week ended Nov. 12 from a year earlier, the commerce ministry said yesterday. The rate has stayed above 9 percent for 16 weeks.

‘Licking Their Lips’

Raj Jain, president of Wal-Mart India, said in April 2010 the company can help reduce prices by improving supply chain and infrastructure to cut waste. About 40 percent of fruit and vegetables in the country rot before they are sold because of a lack of cold-storage facilities and poor transport infrastructure, according to government estimates.

Bharti-Walmart, the local venture, buys fresh produce directly from about 1,200 farmers in Punjab, in northern India, Jain said in May.

“Foreign retailers must be licking their lips at this opportunity,” said Narayanan Ramaswamy, executive director at KPMG India, which advises retail companies. “It has to be one of the biggest opportunities in the world right now.”

To contact the reporters on this story: Bibhudatta Pradhan in New Delhi at bpradhan@bloomberg.net; Malavika Sharma in New Delhi atmsharma52@bloomberg.net

To contact the editor responsible for this story: Frank Longid at flongid@bloomberg.net

It’s No Longer Kirana Versus Modern Retail

While neighbourhood stores have been growing in single digits since 2006, modern trade has had double-digit growth, says a Nielsen study

Arrival of big retailers has had an impact on small grocers, but neighbourhood stores are still growing their sales, although at a much lower rate than modern trade, according to data from market research firm The Nielsen Company. 

Since 2006, when most big retailers either entered the retail space or began expanding their network, sales in local kiranas have grown in the low single digits even less than the GDP growth rate, while modern trade has grown in strong double digits, though at a much lower base.
For instance, sales at modern stores grew 34% in 2006 and 29.3% in 2010. Traditional stores could increase sales only 1.5% in 2006, but improved the growth rate to 6.2% last year (see graph).
The data comes at a time the government finally moves closer to allowing multinational retailers such as Wal-Mart and Carrefour open shops in the country after several years of debates, protests and lobbying. Critics, including the Left and the BJP, say such a move will impact the livelihood of small shopkeepers and traders, but the thinking in government circles is that this will help check rising food prices by removing several layers of middlemen between farmers and consumers.
Organised retail accounts for less than 10% of India’s retail market estimated at close to $400 million. The Boston Consulting Group estimates the size of organised retail market at $28 billion and expects it to grow nine times to $260 billion in 10 years.
Nielsen says Indians have embraced modern retail.  “The Indian Shopper has discovered modern retail and is increasingly shopping there,” says Nielsen’s Executive Director for Retail and Shopper Practice Dipita Chakraborty. This trend is fueled by the growth in number of modern stores, she adds.
The study shows that the frequency of consumers going to large stores has increased. More than 37% consumers visited modern trade stores every month this year, up from 30% last year.
Reliance Retail President Bijou Kurien attributes this to more options that big retailers offer to consumers. “In momand-pop stores, customer has to be very specific with what they want, but they can get more options in a modern store, and that’s where we are gaining,” he says.
MOVING TOWARDS FDI
The Indian government has been advocating that FDI in retail could help small farmers and other producers as well as generate employment for some time now.
In fact, an inter-ministerial group set up by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to suggest ways to tackle high inflation has said that organised retail will reduce the margin between the price farmers get and what consumers pay by eliminating traders, and this will bring down prices. The group also tried to allay fears of small shopkeepers by suggesting creation of several zones and restricting the number of large-format retail stores in each zone.
Multinationals like Wal-Mart and Carrefour, which are lobbying for entry into the big and fast-growing Indian retail market, also say big investments in cold storages will cut wastage of fruits and vegetable in the country, estimated at . 130 crore every day, or about half the total production.
And big retailers say they are no threat to small grocers.  “Both the formats can co-exist. In fact, when modern trade help create new categories, the spillover effect is helping generate more demand in kirana stores as well,” says Damodar Mall, director, integrated food strategy, Future Group, the country’s largest retailer. “Once more wholesale or cash and carry stores are opened, smaller stores too will have more bargaining power and source products at lower costs,” added Mall.
However small shopkeepers are not convinced. And they are holding their ground, more or less.  “It’s true that our business is down compared to what we did few years ago. But we are also observing that few consumers are coming back to our stores for want of better credit facility or home delivery which large format stores can’t offer,” says Chandrakant Gala, secretary, Bombay Suburban Grain Dealers Association.
Meanwhile, big consumer product companies, including the country’s largest consumer products firm Hindustan Unilever that has relied on millions of small shops to build its empire, are now aggressively tapping modern stores.
Modern retail now accounts for 10% of Hindustan Unilever’s sales, up from 5% in 2005. “Last year, 85% of our business has grown share in modern trade. In modern trade we want to be significantly overweight,” the company’s executive director for sales & customer development Hemand Bakshi had told ET in April.
One reason for this is premium products are sold more in modern retail. And the Indian consumers’ love for premium products, which offer higher margins to manufacturers, is increasing along with their rising incomes, exposure and aspirations.

Twist in retail tale: Kiranas partner giants

MICROFINANCE PUSH

IT’S a nagging, almost decade-old doubt that has kept foreign direct investment (FDI) in retail at bay: will the entry of Big Retail hurt the six million kirana stores? As the nation grapples with the question, a series of interesting pilot projects are demonstrating how the giants and the dwarfs can co-exist, and even fuel each other’s growth, thanks to a little help from microfinance institutions (MFIs).

Biggies like Wal-Mart, Metro Cash & Carry and the Future Group have forged partnerships with microfinance and financial institutions to sell merchandise on credit to rural kiranas. The MFIs not only provide credit, but also double up as valuable intermediaries that collect orders from the kiranas, source the merchandise from big retailers and deliver it at the kirana’s doorstep. What’s more, the MFIs do not charge any interest on the credit extended to the kiranas. Instead, they receive a commission from the retailers, for whom this is a small price to pay in order to win new markets and grow faster.

While Metro has been running a pilot with SKS Microfinance in Hyderabad for a few months now, the Future Group has just inked a similar deal with SKS. Bharti Wal-Mart, an equal joint venture, has a partnership with Kotak Mahindra Bank for cards that offer ready credit to the kiranas. RPG-controlled Spencer’s Retail too is keen to explore such opportunities.
If these experiments click, it could enable large retailers to pry open vast rural markets, help kiranas become more efficient in their sourcing, give consumers the benefit of lower prices, and build a thriving retail ecosystem where the lambs can indeed sleep with the lions.

It might also soften the resistance to FDI in retail. If kiranas are empowered to source more effectively, they may be able to co-exist meaningfully with organised retail if and when FDI is opened up. Though foreign retailers are allowed to set up cash-and-carry formats, FDI is not allowed in supermarkets, etc.

“This will open up a completely new rural distribution model and help us in understanding rural consumers,” says Future Group CEO Kishore Biyani. “This is probably the first time the Indian retail sector is targeting the rural market in such a big and strategic way.”

Future Group has started to sell staples, dry groceries and FMCG products through SKS’s network to some kiranas in the North, including a few in the National Capital Region. It also plans to supply its bouquet of private label products through this network. ‘Partnership a win-win one’
IT’S a win-win partnership as we can use our sourcing strength and SKS’s huge network of kirana clients to supply products to them at competitive rates. Eventually, we can include other products as well,” says Biyani.

SKS provides interest-free working capital loan to its kirana clients. The kiranas use this to purchase their inventory from Metro and Future Group at wholesale prices. The loan amounts range from Rs 5,000 to Rs 25,000. SKS, in return, receives a fixed commission from Metro and Future Group for the total purchases a kirana makes.

“Kiranas access superior quality products at very reasonable prices, delivered right at their store, thereby increasing their productivity,” says SKS Microfinance COO MR Rao. SKS has 2.72 lakh kirana store owners as its customers (4% of its total of 68 lakh members). Industry estimates suggest that only 35% of the 6 million-odd kiranas in India are properly serviced by consumer goods companies and distributors. The remaining 65% is serviced by a multi-layered distribution network that is often inefficient, but still adds a substantial amount to the product cost.

German wholesaler Metro Cash and Carry India plans to scale up its Hyderabad pilot nationally soon. The company is also helping rural kiranas with tips on effective use of working capital and strategies to serve their catchments better. “We could have launched this as part of our CSR programme, but we chose to make it a part of our core business plan as the potential is huge,” says Metro Cash & Carry India director (customer management) Ajay Sheodaan.

Kotak Mahindra and Bharti Wal-Mart have rolled out a “business card” which offers credit to kiranas starting from Rs 8,000. The credit is free of interest for 14 days after the purchase and an interest rate of 1.5% per month is charged after that. Kiranas are now making transactions ranging from Rs 15,000 to Rs 1 lakh on this card.

Kotak Mahindra Bank executive VP and head (credit cards) Subrat Pani says the customer acceptance for this lowticket working capital funding is growing on a daily basis. “We have around 700 members from Amritsar and Chandigarh. Within six to seven months, we have been able to drive almost 9-10% of the total sales at Bharti Wal-Mart. This could potentially go up to 12% in the next three months,” he says.

Enthused by these initiatives, RPG Group vice-chairman Sanjiv Goenka says Spencer’s Retail will also study such possibilities. “Any new model which expands penetration is good for the industry,” he says.

However, Retailers Association of India CEO Kumar Rajagopalan responds cautiously. “The real potential for modern retail lies in the top 100 cities. Some companies may be experimenting on newer models, but we need to see how much business it can generate,” he says.

Retail FDI may now come in three phases

NEW DELHI: The government may allow FDI in the retail sector in three phases. The commerce and industry ministry has reopened discussions on allowing FDI in consumer electronics and sports goods retail, and if everything goes as planned, it may happen before the Commonwealth Games in 2010. In the second phase, FDI in single-brand retail may be hiked from 51% to 100%.

Depending on the impact of the first two phases, the government would consider allowing FDI in the sensitive area of multi-brand retailing. Hectic discussions are on among policymakers in Udyog Bhawan for letting foreign investors into the retail sector.

“The government would always take local vendors, kirana stores and traders into confidence before moving ahead on the retail policy. We would try and overcome resistance from factions opposing the move. But we would do it gradually,” a commerce and industry ministry official told ET.

Last month, commerce and industry minister Kamal Nath had also indicated that the government is keen to allow foreign companies in specific sectors ahead of the Commonwealth Games. The government’s view is that retail in electronics will not upset the neighbourhood kirana stores. “It’s a misconception that FDI in retail will upset all kirana stores,” the official said.

Policymakers are toying with different models for allowing foreign investors in the retail industry. Recently, food processing minister Subodh Kant Sahai had said India would open up its $330-billion retail market, but only after being convinced that big retailers would not affect neighbourhood stores.

Late last year, the government had announced plans to allow 51% FDI in multi-brand retail of consumer electronics, sports goods, building equipment and stationery. But it did not go ahead with them, largely because of Congress President Sonia Gandhi’s letter to the PM, asking for a study on the impact of transnational retail on mom & pop stores.

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The changing face of the Indian retail industry

India is fast becoming the retail destination of the world. According to the international management consultant AT Kearney, India has emerged as the leader in terms of retail opportunities. The retail market in India is anticipated to grow to 427 billion USD by the year 2010.

However, the face of the Indian retail industry is changing. India is passing through a retail boom today. A number of changes have taken place on the Indian retail front such as increasing availability of international brands, increasing number of malls and hypermarkets and easy availability of retail space. With the Indian government having opened up the doors for FDI, the entry of foreign retailers into the country has become easier. India has come a long way from the traditional Kirana stores and is on its way to becoming a ‘mall country’. The emphasis has shifted from reasonable pricing to convenience, efficiency and ambience.

The major factors fuelling this change are the increase in disposable income of the people, improving lifestyles, increasing international exposure and increasing awareness among the customers. India has a large middle class as well as youth population, which has contributed greatly to the retail phenomenon. The middle class is considered to be a major potential customer group. The youth are perceived as trend setters and decision makers. Tourist spending in India is increasing, which has also prompted the retail boom.

Food and grocery are the two categories in the Indian retail sector which offer the most promising opportunities. Apart from this, the other areas where there are vast possibilities for Indian retailers are jewellery, apparel and consumer durables. Indian retailers are also trying to create a niche for themselves in areas such as books, gifts and music.

The Indian retail industry is going through a period of golden sunshine.

Fibre2fashion discusses on certain issues concerning the Indian retail industry with Mr. Andreas Gellner, Managing Director, Adidas India:

Mr. Gellner, expressing his view on the present scenario in the Indian retail sector, states that by now, it is fair to assess that the outlook is very bright, but currently, the potential and dynamics are somehow overhyped. Undersupply of suitable spaces and manpower have driven both critical cost components to levels where it is very difficult for many retailers to make profits (not to talk about generating funds for further expansion). The service tax on rentals, of course, was the final blow to many profitability models.

He went on to further state that the long-term future is very promising, but the next few years will remain extremely challenging. While speaking about the current mall culture in India, he believed that the malls as places to congregate and spend time for shopping and other activities have been well accepted. This concept will certainly even grow stronger once new generations of malls are offering consumers/visitors an atmosphere of international standards (including trouble-free parking!).

He also strongly supports the liberalisation of FDI norms in any form of retail, because they won’t hurt traditional business at all, or at least not more than the other Indian business houses who are rolling out their various category killer formats.

What they bring to the table is additional funds, cutting edge supply chain solutions and process know how. The latter is dearly needed to professionalise the retail sector, thereby creating efficiencies (retailer profits) as well as best services and best prices for the Indian consumer.

There are changes in the buyer behaviour of late with the mall culture. The Indian consumer has always been very discerning. Mr. Gellner is of the view that he does not see that changing. Of course, the shopping behavior is changing with malls coming into play, as conversion rates in malls are dramatically lower than in high street. The Indian consumer has more options than ever before, and he/she exerts their power of knowledge very well.

Lastly, he discussed about the plans for meeting the changing trends. He is concentrating on creating a retail-focused organization that recognizes trends and has the ability to adapt swiftly.

Adidas has been the leading producer of sports apparel, footwear and other accessories for more than 8 decades. Adidas has more than 100 stores all over the world. The company started its operations in India in the year 1996. According to experts, Adidas India has been growing at the rate of 50% per annum. The success of Adidas can be attributed to its core values, such as:

• Being consumer focused
• Being innovation and design leaders
• Being socially and environmentally responsible
• Being dedicated to constantly delivering outstanding financial performance
• Being constantly focused on product improvement

Adidas aims at leading the sporting goods industry with products that have been developed with a passion for sports.

Mr. Andreas Gellner has been the Managing Director of Adidas India since the year 2004. He joined Adidas in the year 1995 in Germany and has worked at managerial levels in the organization in different countries.

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